The inflationary scenario is not the only paradigm of early universe cosmology which is consistent with current observations. General criteria will be presented which any successful early universe model must satisfy. Various ways, including inflation, will be presented which satisfy these conditions. It will then be argued that if nature is described at a fundamental level by superstring theory, a cosmology without an initial space-time singularity will emerge, and a structure formation scenario which does not include inflation may be realized.
Brandenberger, R. H. (2018). Beyond standard inflationary cosmology. arXiv preprint arXiv:1809.04926.